STAGE 4 BREAST CANCER
STAGE 4 breast cancer means that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
It is also known as,
Several studies from across the world assert, Black women are more likely to receive a diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, be younger at diagnosis, and have more fatal outcomes than white women.
About 30% of all women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer will develop cancer in other areas of their bodies.
IN STAGE 4 BREAST CANCER:
THE SYMPTONS of STAGE 4 BREAST CANCER CAN BE,
WHERE DOES BREAST CANCER SPREAD TO FIRST?
It’s “metastatic” if cancer spreads beyond these small glands to other parts of your body,
In Breast Cancer Care in Africa (2015), ALL ARTICLES reported that THE MAJORITY OF WOMEN presented at the healthcare facility with STAGES 3 AND 4 ADVANCED BREAST CANCERS.
Key Factors that undermine healthcare include,
THERE IS A LOW LEVEL OF EARLY HEALTH-SEEKING PRACTICES AMONG WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER IN AFRICA.
SURGERY AND ADJUVANT TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER
Of all surgical cancer cases, 68 per cent were treated by modified radical mastectomy. This might be something that surgeons prefer because of a lack of access to radiotherapy.
The non-availability of radiotherapy is a significant obstacle. Currently, radiotherapy covers 28 per cent of what’s required WITH ANOTHER 703 RADIOTHERAPY MACHINES NEEDED IN AFRICA.
In GHANA, a study showed that 64.1 per cent of patients presented breast cancer at a late stage of the disease.
A study done in GHANA found that being a member of the Islamic religion, the main factors that affected treatment completion were,
A hospital-based study from GHANA revealed that patients diagnosed with late-stage cancer who were put on adjuvant therapy with hormone receptor status, were more responsive to treatment guidelines than those that never had the hormone receptor status determined.
RWANDA and SIERRA LEONE
A population-based survey from Rwanda and Sierra Leone, looking at the prevalence of breast masses and barriers to care, showed that
Significant efforts are being made to optimize treatment with limited resources; for example, Rwanda established a central breast cancer treatment centre.
Another study found the highest percentage of advanced breast cancer disease in HAITI in comparison to other Caribbean countries where 64.7 per cent (44 of 68) had STAGES 3 AND 4 breast cancers.
In 2010, Kobetz and other writers, contrasted 45 per cent of metastatic breast cancer cases at diagnosis among HAITIANS living in Miami, to only 10 per cent among other ethnic/sociodemographic groups living nearby. (Cureus, 2021)
A significant proportion of breast cancer women present with large primary tumors with extensive nodal (lymph nodes) involvement, without distant metastases, confirmed suspected breast cancer diagnosis among Jamaican women. This was via detection of a breast lump (91% of cases) and invasive ductal carcinoma as the most common study of breast tissue (histologic) diagnosis.
According to the National Cancer Institute, an estimated 27 percent of people in the United States live at least 5 years after being diagnosed with stage 4 breast cancer.
As you’ll appreciate, from an African heritage perspective, many factors can affect your longevity and quality of life. Different subtypes of breast cancer behave differently.
FROM SOME OF THE VOICES THAT KNOW